Google Self-Driving Car Project

    • The Google Self-Driving Car Project is a project by Google that involves developing technology for autonomous cars, mainly electric cars [1]. Google presented a driverless car that had neither a steering wheel nor pedals in May 2014. They have a plan to make this driverless car available to the public in 2020 [2].


<Google Self-Driving Car> [3]

  Delphi Drive

    • On 22 March 2015, an autonomous car by Delphi successfully had derived 3,400 miles from San Francisco to New York. The company built a self-driving car based on a 2014 Audi SQ5 and packed with the sensors and computers that Delphi developed to replace humans: A camera in the windshield looks for lane lines, road signs, and traffic lights [4].


<Delphi autonomous car> [5]

  Mobility Transformation Center

    • September 2014, the University of Michigan founded the Mobility Transformation Center, a new connected-vehicle testing and research institution [4]. The MTC is planning several future large-scale laboratory such as Mcity and real-world testing projects with government and industry partners to develop the foundations of a commercially viable ecosystem of connected and automated vehicles for moving people and goods [6].


<Mcity> [7]

  General Motors-Carnegie Mellon Autonomous Driving Collaborative Research   Lab (AD-CRL)

    • The AD-CRL was established by Raj Rajkumar, who won the 2007 Urban Driving Grand Challenge, in June 2008. This research lab is a multi-disciplinary effort focused on studying, designing and implementing various technologies to make autonomous (driverless) vehicles both practical and affordable [8]. Also, GM introduced Electric Networked-Vehicle (EN-V) which is a fully-automated and zero-emissions electric vehicle at 2010 Shanghai World Expo



<EN-V> [9]


    • Ford unveiled an autonomous vehicle in December 2013, in the form of a lidar-equipped (lidar is like radar, but with light instead of sound) Fusion Hybrid. In Jan 2015, they opened the Research and Innovation Center Palo Alto to accelerate its development of technologies and experiments in connectivity, mobility, autonomous vehicles, customer experience and big data [10].

<Ford Lidar technology> [11]

  Nissan and Nasa

    • On June 2015, NASA’s Ames Research Center and Nissan North America have signed a Reimbursable Umbrella Space Act Agreement and the first annex to that agreement [12]. The umbrella agreement allows for partnerships in autonomous vehicle systems, robotics, human-machine interface, software analysis/verification and network-enabled applications [12]. The first annex to this agreement initiates cooperative research and development of algorithms, concepts and integrated prototypes for self-driving cars [12].



<Nissan Leaf autonomous car> [12]

  Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (2016)

  Ford (2016)

    • In March 2016, the company launched a subsidiary FSM (Ford Smart Mobility). The subsidiary will aim to develop “in-car connectivity, rider sharing and autonomous technologies”. Further, Ford claims that they will have a level-5 fully autonomous vehicle in production by 2021. Their plan is to initially use these fully autonomous vehicles as “robotic taxi services in restricted urban areas” and plan on selling them to consumers by 2025″[37].


  GM (2017)

  Tesla (2016)

    • The company in late 2016 “introduced a new suite of self-driving hardware as standard, enabling a path to fully autonomous driving”. “The computer uses an Nvidia Titan GPU and runs a neural net, so it can process imagery and define objects in its environment”. The company claims that the current hardware and software supports level-5 autonomous vehicle capabilities however they will not activate full self-driving immediately [39].




    • Audi demonstrated the A7 autonomous prototype in January 2015. This autonomous vehicle drove unassisted from San Francisco to Las Vegas, a distance of 550 miles, using various sensors such as radar sensors, LIDAR laser scanners, high-resolution 3D video camera, and etc. These emerging devices already support autonomous emergency braking, and are also being designed for the ISO26262 automotive safety standard [4].


<A7 autonomous prototype> [13]


    • Mercedes introduced the Mercedes-Benz F 015 Luxury in Motion concept vehicle at the International CES in January 2015. This car has six digital displays so passengers can control the car by touch. Also, this car has visual and acoustic signals for safety and a luxury lounge for passengers’ comfort. However, this concept vehicle is just concept now. They just show other car and tech companies what future consumers might be looking for in their driverless cars.

<Mercedes-Benz F 015 Luxury> [14]

  BMW ConnectedDrive

    • At CES 2014, the BMW Group exhibited a new dimension of BMW Active Assist: a safety assistant that brings the vehicle back on track without any intervention by the driver, even in demanding traffic situations [15]. They were outfitted with a LIDAR system, 360-degree radar, ultrasonic sensors, and cameras that track the environment [16]. Also, at CES 2015, they showed a self-parking i3 EV, not just parallel parking but able to hunt through a parking garage for open spaces. The same sensors avoid cars and pedestrians while under way [17].


Gallery Image

<BMW autonomous car> [16]

  Volvo Drive Me

    • In February 2015, Volvo announced that it’ll be testing its autonomous driving system, Drive Me, out in the wild with real drivers when it hits the road in 2017 [18]. The test will take place in and around Volvo’s hometown of Gothenburg, Sweden [18]. Drive Me uses a combination of cameras, lasers, and radar to keep track of its surroundings, and maintains a data uplink from the car for detailed maps [18].


<Volvo autonomous car> [19]


<Scania self-driving truck> [20]


<ECOTWIN truck> [21]


    • The Dutch Automated Vehicle Initiative (DAVI), which develops highly automated vehicles for research and demonstrations on public roads, was initiated by TU Delft, RDW, Connekt and TNO [22]. Their research tries to prove the safety of these vehicles and focuses on human factors in automated driving [4]. DAVI implements automation technology in real cars that can be driven on existing roads in normal traffic [4].


<DAVI autonomous car> [22]

  VENTURER consortium

    • The VENTURER consortium has secured funding from Innovate UK to test driverless cars in the Bristol region [23]. This consortium trials autonomous vehicles in the Bristol and South Gloucestershire council areas to explore the feasibility of driverless cars in the UK [24]. Its members include the insurance group Axa, and
      much of its focus will be on the public’s reaction to the technical as well as the legal and insurance implications of its introduction [4].


<VENTURER BAE wildcat driverless car> [24]


    • The GATEway is led by the Transport Research Laboratory consultancy and also involves General Motors and the IAM, AA and RAC motoring associations [4]. It plans to carry out tests of automated passenger shuttle vehicles as well as autonomous valet parking for adapted cars [4]. In addition, a self-drive car simulator will make use of a photorealistic 3D model of the area to study how people react to sharing the driving of a vehicle with its computer [4].

<GREENWICH shuttle> [25]

  UK Autodrive programme

    • Milton Keynes and Coventry hosts the UK Autodrive programme. Among other parties, this involves Ford, Jaguar Land Rover and the engineering consultancy Arup and test both self-drive cars on the road as well as self-driving pods designed for pedestrian areas [4].

<lutz pathfinder driverless pods> [26]


    • In 2010 VISLab, the research group of the University of Parma, launched a research and development project that saw an automated van successfully drive from Italy to China through different traffic, weather and road conditions [4]. Based on these technologies, they have conducted various projects and developed autonomous vehicles such as Braive, PROUD, and Deeva.


<Deeva> [27]

  Audi 2017

  BMW 2017

    • BMW AG plan on testing their fleet of autonomous vehicles in selected European and American Cities in Fall 2017. They are carrying this out in partnership with Mobileye NV and Intel Corp. with a gal of introducing fully self-driving vehicles by 2021. The goal of testing these vehicles in the urban environment is to gather data towards producing its new line of vehicles “iNext, which will supplant the 7 series as the BMW brand’s flagship model and be capable of full autonomy in four years from now”[41].


  Jaguar (2016)

    • The company is working with German-industrial conglomerate Robert Bosch Group to “accelerate the deployment and deployment of automated driving systems”. The company has installed sensors to a fleet of its vehicles, thereby recording information about the driving habits of its employees. The aim is to learn how “different people react to real-world driving situations like heavy traffic, road construction and bad weather”. Further, Jaguar independently plans on testing its driver-assistance systems by deploying five research vehicles “along a special 41-mile corridor in the U.K. to test technology that lets cars that lets cars communicate with each other as well as road infrastructure”[42].



  Dynamic Map (DM) for self-driving cars

    • A dynamic map (DM) for the project has been presented by the Cabinet Office. This DM creates a detailed driving route based on precise map information and traffic regulation information, recognizes an accurate vehicle position by comparing GPS with DM, and grasps condition of vehicle surroundings by combining map and traffic / road Information [4]. The DM prototype will be prepared and tested by the end of March 2015. Practical use is planned in 2017 [4].

<DM test area> [28]


    • Toyota has said that it is focusing its efforts on ‘infrastructure-cooperative’ automated driving, but has admitted to recently developing an automated vehicle that uses on-board sensors [4]. At the 2013 Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in Las Vegas, Lexus showcased its LS Hybrid prototype equipped with driver- assist technologies [29].

Lexus LS Prototype

<LS Hybrid prototype> [29]


    • Nissan has been working to develop this technology alongside teams from some of the world’s top universities, including MIT, Stanford, Oxford, Carnegie Mellon and the University of Tokyo [30]. They have stated that they will market more than one fully automated vehicle by 2020 with lower levels of automation being released from 2016 onwards [4]. Nissan is building a dedicated automated vehicle proving ground in Oppama, Japan [4].


<Nissan autonomous car> [30]


    • At 2014 ITS World Congress in Detroit, Honda showed their new connected cars and automated driving technologies. The Acura RLX that was outfitted with special cameras and sensors that allow it to drive without a driver in control of the wheel [31]. On April 2015, Honda started testing its autonomous vehicle at the former Concord Naval Weapons Station on the outskirts of San Francisco.

<Acura Autonomous RLX> [32]

  Honda (2016)

    • The company has been working on producing level-2 autonomous vehicles by 2020. The company has been in talks with Alphabet Inc’s Waymo to develop fully autonomous, driverless cars. “Honda has been developing automated driving functions and ways to connect vehicles to the internet, as well as artificial intelligence to enable vehicles to “think” while driving”[43].


  Toyota (2016)

South Korea


    • In July 2014 Hyundai released a video demonstrating a combination of existing technologies that allowed a convoy of vehicles to circulate their test circuit with no driver present [4]. They have a plan to commercialize a semiautonomous car in the end of 2015. The drivers in this car can take their hands off the steering wheel and feet off the brakes as they’re traveling down the highway, and let their car do the driving [33]. Also, Hyundai aims to have a car with autonomous driving capabilities ready by 2020, in an attempt to catch up with other automakers and their tech [34].

<Hyundai Genesis autonomous test> [35]


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[2]T. Halleck, “Google Inc. Says Self-Driving Car Will Be Ready By 2020,” International Business Times, 2015.

[3]”Google Self-Driving Car Project,” [Online]. Available: [Accessed 15 May 2015].

[4]C. Hottentot, V. Meines and M. Pinckaers, “Experiments on autonomous and automated driving: an overview 2015,” ANWB, 2015.

[5]”Delphi Drive,” [Online]. Available: [Accessed 15 May 2015].

[6]”Driving the Future of Mobility,” [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[7]”Mcity Test Facility,” [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[8]”General Motors-Carnegie Mellon Autonomous Driving Collaborative Research Lab (AD-CRL),” [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[9]”GM’s Concept-ual View of Autonomous Driving Tech,” [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].


[11]L. Laursen, “Ford’s Smooth-Driving Autonomous Research Car,” 25 February 2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[12]”From Rovers to Self-Driving Cars: NASA Ames and Nissan North America Sign Agreement for Autonomous Vehicle Research,” 9 January 2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[13]J. HOLMAN, “Audi Sends Self-Driving Car On 550-Mile Drive From San Francisco To Las Vegas For CES,” 5 January 2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[14]”The Mercedes Robo-Car That Made Me Want to Stop Driving,” 23 March 2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[15]”BMW Highly Automated Driving,” [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[16]D. LAVRINC, “BMW Builds a Self-Driving Car — That Drifts,” 1 July 2014. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[17]B. Howard, “It’s 2015, self-driving cars are more than a promise,” 12 January 2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[18]C. Ziegler, “Volvo will run a public test of self-driving cars with 100 real people in 2017,” 23 February 2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[19]”Volvo drive me project,” [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[20]”Innovative Scania: Rolling towards platooning,” 30 September 2013. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[21]”DAF AND TNO DEMONSTRATE ‘ECOTWIN’,” 27 March 2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[22]”DAVI on the road,” [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[23]”VENTURER consortium to test driverless cars in Bristol region,” 3 December 2014. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[24]”Transport Minister and Business Secretary launch VENTURER driverless car trial,” 11 February 2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[25]R. Gill, “SELF-DRIVING CARS: THE RACE IS ON,” 27 March 2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[26]”LUTZ Pathfinder (autonomous pods),” [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[27]”VisLab veicolo a visione 3D e 360 gradi,” [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[28]M. FUKUSHIMA, “Dynamic Map,” Detroit, 2014.

[29]”Toyota Showcases Semi-Autonomous Vehicle System,” 9 January 2013. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[30]”Nissan’s Autonomous Drive Car,” 15 March 2014. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[31]T. HASELTON, “Honda testing autonomous cars at a massive former naval facility,” 2 April 2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[32]”Honda shows self-driving car in Detroit,” 10 September 2014. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[33]”Semiautonomous Hyundai car will hit the streets this year,” 3 April 2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[34]A. Kalogianni, “Hyundai says it will have self-driving technology ready for 2020,” 30 March 2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[35]J. Laird, “New Hyundai ad shows futuristic autonomous car tech you can buy today,” 7 July 2014. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30 May 2015].

[36]Ebhardt, Tommaso, Daniele Lepido, and Mark Bergen. “Google Said to Plan Ride-Sharing Service With Fiat Chrysler.” Bloomberg, 13 Dec. 2016. Web. 18 Apr. 2017. [Online]. Available:

[37]Harris, Mark. “Ford Tries to Catch up to Uber and Google in the Driverless Car Game.”The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 12 Sept. 2016. Web. 18 Apr. 2017. [Online]. Available:

[38]”GM to Build and Test Thousands of Self-driving Bolts in 2018.” VentureBeat. N.p., 17 Feb. 2017. Web. 18 Apr. 2017. [Online]. Available:

[39] Wayne Cunningham. “Elon Musk Says All Tesla Models Now Include Full Self-driving Hardware.” Roadshow. CNET, 19 Oct. 2016. Web. 18 Apr. 2017. [Online]. Available:

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