US

<US Connected project timeline> [1]

  VSC (Vehicle Safety Communication) (2002~2004)

    • This project’s purpose is to estimate the potential benefits of communication-based vehicle safety applications and to define their communications requirements; to ensure that proposed DSRC communications protocols meet the needs of vehicle safety applications; to investigate specific technical issues that may affect the ability of DSRC to support deployment of vehicle safety applications; and to estimate the deployment feasibility of communications-based vehicle safety applications [2]. The project was conducted by the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership (CAMP), Vehicle Safety Communications Consortium (VSCC) and USDOT. In the later, this project developed into VSC-A project.

VSC-A Vehicle Safety Communications

<CAMP partnership> [3]

  IntelliDrive / VII (Vehicle Infrastructure Integration) (2004~2009)

    • IntelliDrive or as it was also formerly known Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII) is a joint effort of USDOT, associations and universities (ITS America, PATH, Virginia Tech, etc.), and industry (VSCC, communication service providers, etc.) whose research efforts are focused on V2V and V2I communications in order to enable advanced crash avoidance applications and communications with the broader infrastructure [4].

http://www.thedetroitbureau.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/IntelliDrive-chart.jpg

<IntelliDrive Networked Environment> [5]

  CICAS (Cooperation Intersections Collision Avoidance System) (2004~2009)

    • The Cooperation Intersections Collision Avoidance System was carried out by USDOT with others stakeholders involved as the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership (CAMP), State Departments of Transportation and Automotive manufacturers. It was aimed to reduce cross-path crashes at intersection for both violations and gaps; to assess the value and acceptance of cooperative collision avoidance systems; and to develop and provide tools to support industry deployments [6].

    • http://www.its.dot.gov/cicas/

Stop Sign Assist System

<Stop Sign Assist System> [7]

Signalized Left Turn Assist System

<Signalized Left Turn Assist System> [7]

  VSC-A (Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications) (2006~2009)

    • The Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications Project has got as the starting point the VSC Project and continued their work with almost the same collaborative agents. The goal of the VSC-A project was to develop and test communication-based vehicle safety systems to determine if DSRC at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, can improve upon autonomous vehicle based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications [8].

    • Final Report

<VSC-A system test bed HW layout> [8]

  SafeTrip21 (Safe and Efficient Travel through Innovation and Partnerships   for the 21st Century) (2008~2011)

    • The SafeTrip21 initiative was founded by the USDOT Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA) in 2008 after VII program. This initiative was aimed at testing and evaluating integrated, intermodal ITS applications, focusing on providing immediate benefits such as improved safety, reduced congestion, and advancing the nation’s transportation system [9].

  Connected Vehicle Research (2011~Ongoing)

    • In 2011, IntelliDrive project was renamed Connected Vehicle Research. The purpose of connected vehicle is improving safety, mobility, and environment effects in transportation environments by using V2V and V2I technologies. They use 5.9Hz WAVE communication methods which can support both V2V and V2I.

    • http://www.its.dot.gov/factsheets/connected_vehicle_testbed_factsheet.htm

  Safety Pilot (2011~2014)

    • The Safety Pilot is a V2V and V2I DSRC technology test-bed project led by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) in collaboration with CAMP and inside the USDOT ITS program [10]. Its purpose is to demonstrate in an urban scenario with real drivers the benefits of V2V communications and its acceptance.

    • http://www.its.dot.gov/research/safety_pilot_overview.htm

The map shows the Ann Arbor-area plan for the Safety Pilot program being conducted by UMTRI. Image courtesy UMTRI.

<The Ann Arbor-area plan for the Safety Pilot program being conducted by UMTRI> [11]

Europe

https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/ZlOq-NCVnPq1fH7-aLYSlfv5jKg7uNihpB-1y_3kLNtoDskIMQtdYsTvSgHUoQQi5Oy2yWY1Hy5Zz8Ukavbc9aXWTwTV8i44lyqgEPRO7WRjQOIz6egwxH0fl_6dgma_ZKptLaE

<CVIS, SAFESPOT and COOPERS vision> [1]

  CVIS (Cooperative Vehicle Infrastructure Systems) (2006~2010)

    • The Cooperative Vehicle and Infrastructure Systems project was aimed to create the core network of vehicular environment, developing a full architecture which serves as infrastructure for vehicular communications. CVIS also defined an open framework architecture to facilitate the creation of cooperative vehicular applications, supporting real-life applications and services for drivers, operators, industry and other key stakeholders [1].

    • http://cvisproject.org

Communication between vehicles and the road

<CVIS technology> [12]

  SAFESPOT (Integrated Project Cooperative Systems for Road Safety)         (2006~2010)

    • The Cooperative vehicles and road infrastructure for road safety was aimed to design systems for cooperative driving which makes use of V2V and V2I communications [13]. These systems will enable technologies that improve the safety in roads, such as a “Safety Margin Assistant” to detect potentially dangerous situations, advising drivers with a big amount of information.

    • http://www.safespot-eu.org/

http://www.safespot-eu.org/images/start.jpg

<SAFESPOT technology> [13]

  COOPERS (CO-OPERrative System for intelligent road safety) (2006~2010)

    • The COOPERS stands for CO-OPerative SystEms for Intelligent Road Safety. This project was aimed to create a Cooperative Traffic Management system, applying telematics innovation to the road infrastructure [14]. This project uses the cooperative systems, supported by wireless connections (V2V and V2I) to collect useful information from vehicles (e.g. speed, location, journey time, weather conditions, vehicle status), creating a huge database shared with traffic operators and ITS service providers.

    • http://www.coopers-ip.eu

http://media.eurotransportmagazine.com/wp-content/uploads/bohm1-600x463.png

<COOPERS technology> [15]

  PRECIOSA (PRivacy Enabled Capability In co-Operative Systems and Safety   Applications) (2008–2010)

    • The PRivacy Enabled Capability In co-Operative Systems and Safety Applications project was focused on security and privacy issues collected in the recommendations given by previous projects [16].

    • http://www.preciosa-project.org

  PREDRIVE C2X (PREparation for DRIVing implementation and Evaluation of C-   2-X Communication technology) (2008–2010)

    • The PREparation for DRIVing implementation and Evaluation of C-2-X Communication technology project was aimed to prepare a large scale field trial for vehicular communication technology, following the COMeSafety architecture and developing a robust enough prototype of V2X system and its verification method for its use in future field operational tests.

    • http://www.pre-drive-c2x.eu/

  DRIVE C2X (DRIVing implementation and Evaluation of C2X communication technology in Europe) (2011–2014)

    • The DRIVing implementation and Evaluation of C2X communication technology in Europe is the major pan-European field operational test on cooperative systems based on CAR-2-X communication using WLAN and 3G communication technologies [17].

    • http://www.drive-c2x.eu/project

Schematic of V2X technology

<DRIVE C2X technology> [18]

  COMeSafety2 (Communications for eSafety 2) (2011~2013)

    • The Communications for eSafety 2 project involves coordinating activities related to the deployment of cooperative ITS on European roads. The focus of these projects includes standardization issues; best practices from European, Japanese, and US field operational tests (FOTs); a cooperative multimodal ITS architecture concept; and needs analysis among others [19].

    • http://www.comesafety.org/

http://www.comesafety.org/typo3temp/pics/0f697e7a8e.jpg

<COMSafety2 system> [20]

Japan

https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/t_mv55M6RYumcWoIp773dq8dFlZQrUYa-0kS6fzRcqgwsGTI1kYkYrM333eOH4-8IxiTpGvI1I1rZLwGDaq9t_inK2-NHTR4Pb259X3seiwS8006r4lWDSfCvtJ1I0-Gi70TxMw

[ITS Green Safety in Japan] [21]

  VICS (Vehicle Information And Communication System) (1995~2003)

    • The VICS delivers traffic and travel information such as traffic congestion data, data on availability of service and parking areas, and information on road construction and traffic collisions to drivers. Three government agencies (Ministry of Construction, National Police Agency, and the former Ministry of Post and Telecommunications) began collaborating on VICS in 1990, and in 1991, began working with industry. In 1996, VICS service began [1].

    • http://www.vics.or.jp/english/vics/index.html

http://www.vics.or.jp/english/vics/img/vics_p2.jpg

<VICS technology> [22]

  ITS SPOT (2009)

    • The ITS Spots are roadside units that can transmit and receive messages. So far, 1,670 Spot units have been installed across the country, and more than 220,000 OBUs have been sold.150 These Spots can be used to inform drivers of road obstacles, weather events, or other hazardous conditions [23].

    • http://www.mlit.go.jp/road/ITS

http://www.its-jp.org/english/files/2013/10/E-GS3_ENG-0802.jpg

<ITS SPOT technology> [21]

  DSSS (Driving Safety Support Systems) (2011~ Ongoing)

    • The DSSS system is a typical connected vehicle system in which vehicles obtain information from roadside units (RSUs), other vehicles, or pedestrians, and those devices can also pass information back to the vehicle enabling a driver to respond to traffic conditions. The V2I system is based on the same IR light beacon RSUs used for VICS [24].

    • http://www.utms.or.jp/english/system/dsss.html

http://www.its-jp.org/english/files/2013/10/E-GS1_Eng-0716.jpg

<DSSS technology> [21]

  ASV Project (Advanced Safety Vehicle) (1991~Ongoing)

    • The Advanced Safety Vehicle project is develop methods and devices to improve the safety of the transportation system, such as emergency braking, parking aid, blind curve accidents, right turn assistance and pedestrian accidents, blind intersection and image of cognitive assistance [25] [26].

<ASV technology> [27]

  Smartyway (2006~2010)

    • The Smartway project was designed to create a road system that could exchange information among cars, drivers, pedestrians, and users using DSRC [28]. It was originally a field test of various road warning applications, such as merge assist, curve warning, congestion warning, and weather information.

    • http://www.mlit.go.jp/road/ITS

http://www.its-jp.org/english/files/2013/10/E-GS4_ENG-0716.jpg

<Smartway technology> [21]

  ITS-Safety 2010 (2006 ~ 2010)

    • The ITS-Safety 2010 project focused on ITS safety and security and it used the vehicle-to-vehicle communications system and the road-to-vehicle communications system [29]. This system used millimeter wave radar system to sense the distance between vehicle or vehicle and obstacles [29].

South Korea

  U-transportation (Ubiquitous Transportation) (2006~2012)

    • The U-Transportation technology is real time communication technology between vehicles, the transportation infrastructure, and pedestrians equipped with Ubiquitous Vehicle Sensors (UVS), Ubiquitous Infrastructure Sensors (UIS), and Ubiquitous Pedestrian Sensors (UPS), respectively.

https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/LaT6Lweisq5IRMhuI67FJfcyfWsJUUvv_DwUP5uMRS6NxInWaI44bmhdhpeNl-XYFW0eSBHGPo-lRNe2hIzVseyXuD0mboiHQKr9gwhvd7YwC2NF1Iou3ommsy5O6j-fWzdOhqg

<U-transportation technology> [30]

  Smart Highway (2008~2014)

    • The purpose of Smart Highway Project is to develop safer and more convenient highways by means of converging the highly advanced road technologies, IT communication technologies and automobile technologies [31]. This project can be divided into four fields; the development of road-based technology, traffic management technology using wireless communications, automobile-related technology and the application of the research outcomes [32].

    • http://www.smarthighway.or.kr

https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/pxpSSwKmcUo-pXWUPsTAuMEUooHlOvztyLpwwqcM8ArTkFCNGlBT82awpITA_XiqfLPUImzkqHd_g1ckT7AwtPSmDmYpyocxhqc8nKC78--j9VhBA8WYgYjgo8mQr4C8g_bKkLY

<Smart Highway technology> [33]

References

[1]J. M. León-Coca, D. G. Reina, S. L. Toral, F. Barrero and N. Bessis, “Intelligent Transportation Systems and Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment Technology for Developing Smart Cities,” in Big Data and Internet of Things: A Roadmap for Smart Environments, Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp. 285-313.

[2]The CAMPVehicle safety communications consortium, “Vehicle safety communications project task 3 final report: identify intelligent vehicle safety applications enabled by DSRC,” U.S. Department of Transportation-National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2005.

[3]”VSC-A Vehicle communicatins,” [Online]. Available: http://www.docstoc.com/docs/148550571/VSC-A-Vehicle-Safety-Communications. [Accessed 15 May 2015].

[4]R. Kandarpa, M. Chenzaie, J. Anderson, J. Marousek, T. Weil, F. Perry, I. Schworer, J. Beal and C. Anderson, “Final report: vehicle infrastructure integration proof of concept results and findings-Infrastructure,” U.S. Department of Transportation, 2009.

[5]”USDOT to Host Driver Clinics for Connected Vehicles,” 18 May 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.thedetroitbureau.com/2011/05/usdot-to-host-driver-clinics-for-connected-vehicles/. [Accessed 15 May 2015].

[6]”Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance Systems (CICAS),” 28 May 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.its.dot.gov/cicas/. [Accessed 28 May 2015].

[7]”The ITS Research Initiatives, Programs, and Related Research,” [Online]. Available: http://ntl.bts.gov/lib/jpodocs/repts_te/14289/plan2-5.htm. [Accessed 15 May 2015].

[8]Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership on behalf of the Vehicle Safety Communications 2 Consortium, “Vehicle Safety Communications – Applications (VSC-A) Final Report,” NHTSA Headquarters and Research and Innovative Technology Administration, 2011.

[9]Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), “National Evaluation Of The Safetrip-21 Initiative: Combined Final Report,” Research And Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), 2011.

[10]”What is the Safety Pilot Model Deployment?,” [Online]. Available: http://safetypilot.umtri.umich.edu/. [Accessed 15 May 2015].

[11]”U.S. DOT and UMTRI Launch Connected Vehicle Safety Pilot Program,” 21 August 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.automotive-fleet.com/news/story/2012/08/u-s-dot-and-umtri-launch-connected-vehicle-safety-pilot-program.aspx. [Accessed 15 May 2015].

[12]”Communication between vehicles and the road,” [Online]. Available: http://www.dlr.de/en/DesktopDefault.aspx/tabid-667/7411_read-14634/gallery-1/gallery_read-Image.1.7341/. [Accessed 15 May 2015].

[13]”SAFESPOT Integrated Project,” [Online]. Available: http://www.safespot-eu.org/. [Accessed 15 May 2015].

[14]”COOPERS,” [Online]. Available: http://www.coopers-ip.eu/. [Accessed 15 May 2015].

[15]”EU-Kommission legt Frequenzen für Fahrzeugkommunikation fest,” [Online]. Available: http://www.golem.de/0808/61546.html. [Accessed 15 May 2015].

[16]”PRECIOSA,” [Online]. Available: http://www.preciosa-project.org. [Accessed 15 May 2015].

[17]R. Stahlmann, A. Festag, A. Tomatis, I. Radusch and F. Fischer, “Starting European field test for Car-2-X communication: The Drive C2X Framework,” in 18th ITS World Congress and Exhibition, 2011.

[18]”Drive-C2X,” [Online]. Available: http://www.drive-c2x.eu/technology. [Accessed 15 May 2015].

[19]”ERTICO,” [Online]. Available: http://ertico.com/. [Accessed 15 May 2015].

[20]”COMSafety2,” [Online]. Available: http://www.comesafety.org/. [Accessed 15 May 2015].

[21]”ITS GREEN SAFETY SHOWCASE,” [Online]. Available: http://www.its-jp.org/english/its-green-safety-showcase/. [Accessed 15 May 2015].

[22]”How VICS works,” [Online]. Available: http://www.vics.or.jp/english/vics/index.html. [Accessed 15 May 2015].

[23]S. SUZUKI, F. KANAZAWA and T. TSUKIJI, “Towards Safer and More Efficient Road Traffic with Existing Road Networks and Cooperative ITS Service – Case of ‘ITS Spot Service’ in Japan.,” ITS Asia Pacific Forum 2014, 2014.

[24]European Commission, “Energy ITS Workshop, UMTS Symposium and Smartway/DSSS/ASV Demonstrations, Tokyo, Japan 24-27 February 2009.,” European Commission, 2009.

[25]I. Paromtchik and C. Laugier, “The Advanced Safety Vehicle Programme,” Scientific Commons, 2007.

[26]Y. Furukawa, “Overview of R&D on Active Safety in Japan,” Car to Car Consortium, 2006.

[27]K. ISHIDA, “Development of ASV in Japan – ASV Promotion Project, Phase3,” MLIT.

[28]R. Harris, “ITS and the latest developments that contribute to road safety,” World Road Association, 2010.

[29]G. Karagiannis, O. Altintas, E. Ekici, G. Heijenk, B. Jarupan, K. Lin and T. Weil, “Vehicular Networking: A Survey and Tutorial on Requirements, Architectures, Challenges, Standards and Solutions,” Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 584-616, 2011.

[30]”The Korea Transport Institute,” [Online]. Available: https://www.koti.re.kr/. [Accessed 15 May 2015].

[31]”SMART Highway: Opening the future of high-tech road transport system by Korea Expressway Corporation,” [Online]. Available: http://www.ksce.or.kr/newsletter/130820/pdf/10_2(7).pdf. [Accessed 15 May 2015].

[32]I. Bearder, “SMART HIGHWAY: Korea Aiming to Build the World’s Most Intelligent Highways,” 3 September 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.erticonetwork.com/ertico-news/entry/1177-smart-highway-korea-aiming-to-build-the-world%E2%80%99s-most-intelligent-highways. [Accessed 15 May 2015].

[33]”SmartHighway,” [Online]. Available: http://www.smarthighway.or.kr. [Accessed 15 May 2015].